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Mystery Space Diamond is Tougher Than Any Diamond Ever Discovered on Earth



A “mystery” diamond from space that is reportedly tougher than any diamond on earth has finally been validated by researchers.

What Mystery Diamond?

While the existence of the cosmic diamond has been contested in the past, it has now been discovered on Earth’s surface. The stone, known as lonsdaleite, is assumed to have come to Earth via a meteorite.

The discovery has particularly interested scientists because super-durable components might be produced using an adaptation of the chemical method that created lonsdaleite.

CNN reported the story, citing a study that was published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences journal (where the discovery was first reported), and mentioning that Andy Tomkins, an Australian professor at Monash University, discovered the new stone while categorizing meteorites in northwest Africa.

Alan Salek, a co-author of the paper, claimed that Tomkins found a “strange, bent form of diamond in space rock.”

Salek reported that Tomkins believed that the dwarf planet from which the meteorite that carried the lonsdaleite to earth likely originated around 4.5 billion years ag

He said: “The dwarf planet was then catastrophically struck by an asteroid, releasing pressure and leading to the formation of these really strange diamonds.”

Paul Asimow, a professor of geology and geochemistry at the California Institute of Technology, commented on the possibility that the discovery of lonsdaleite might one day be used to produce cutting-edge industrial components, saying that it “really takes advantage of a number of recent developments in microscopy to do what they did well as they did.”

With the aid of sophisticated synchrotron techniques and electron microscopy, the team analyzed and created maps of the meteorite’s constituent parts and discovered graphite in addition to lonsdaleite.

Nature sure is Amazing

Tomkins himself said: “Nature has thus provided us with a process to try and replicate in industry.

“We think that lonsdaleite could be used to make tiny, ultra-hard machine parts if we can develop an industrial process that promotes the replacement of pre-shaped graphite parts by lonsdaleite.”

Scientists originally found pieces of lonsdaleite in 1967, but they were barely a few nanometers in size.

It seems like an odd claim that we have a name for a thing, and we are all in agreement as to what it is, Asimow added, noting that scientists had previously argued over whether the mineral even existed.

“And yet there are claims in the community that it’s not a real mineral, it’s not a real crystal, that you could have a macroscopic scale.”

Would you like a look at the space rock err- diamond?


Second Earth-Sized World in Planetary System Recently Found by NASA’s TESS



The newly discovered planet and its smaller, Earth-sized companion are both in the habitable zone, where it is possible that liquid water may be present on both surfaces. Scientists have discovered a planet the size of Earth named TOI 700 e that is circling within the habitable zone of its star, or the range of distances where liquid water might exist on a planet’s surface. This planet was discovered using data from NASA’s Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite. It is 95% as big as Earth and probably made of rocks.

Finding Out More

The TOI 700 b, c, and d planets were the first three planets in this system to be found by astronomers. The habitable zone is where planet d also revolves. However, it took researchers another year of TESS observations to find TOI 700 e.

The study’s lead author, Emily Gilbert, a postdoctoral fellow at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Southern California, noted that this is one of the few known systems containing several small, livable planets. “This is one of only a few systems with multiple, small, habitable-zone planets that we know of, that makes the TOI 700 system an exciting prospect for additional follow-up. Planet e is about 10% smaller than planet d, so the system also shows how additional TESS observations help us find smaller and smaller worlds.”

More Out There

A tiny, cool M dwarf star called TOI 700 can be found in the southern constellation Dorado at a distance of about 100 light-years. Gilbert and others announced the finding of three planets in 2020, including the Earth-sized, habitable-zone planet d, which is on a 37-day orbit. The innermost planet, TOI 700 b, orbits the star every ten days and is nearly 90% the size of Earth. The orbit of TOI 700 c, which is more than 2.5 times larger than Earth, lasts 16 days. The planets are likely tidally locked, meaning they rotate just once per circle so that one side always faces the star, just as the Moon always faces Earth from one side of its orbit.

Planetary scientists can learn more about the past of our own solar system by discovering other systems in this region that have Earth-sized worlds. According to Gilbert, further research into the TOI 700 system using both ground- and space-based observatories is ongoing and could provide new information about this unusual system.

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Robot Amazingly Escapes Cage by Turning Itself into a Liquid



Researchers from the Chinese University of Hong Kong and Carnegie Mellon University in the United States have just developed a novel substance that can duplicate the abilities of the T-1000. The small melty men may be able to save some lives with their newly acquired talents, so it’s not all awful, it seems. A tiny robot that resembles a T-1000 Terminator cyborg can be seen fleeing a tiny jail cell in a video that researchers recently published.

How It Happened

To navigate bars, the robot can be seen dissipating into a liquid state. Once liberated, it goes back to being solid. The moment from Terminator 2: Judgment Day where the solid metal T-1000 transforms into a liquid substance in order to glide past a set of bars that were blocking its path while attempting to assassinate Sarah Connor will be remembered by move enthusiasts. It’s wonderful that researchers were able to reassure the public that their robot mini wasn’t responsible for John Connor’s murder.

The Science Behind It

In his explanation of the science underlying the shape-shifting robot, senior author Professor Carmel Majidi said that magnetic particles have a dual role in the process. According to Matter, “One is that they make the material responsive to an alternating magnetic field, so you can, through induction, heat up the material and cause the phase change. But the magnetic particles also give the robots mobility and the ability to move in response to the magnetic field.”

Future research should investigate how these robots might be used in a biomedical setting, the researcher said. “What we’re showing are just one-off demonstrations, proofs of concept, but much more study will be required to delve into how this could actually be used for drug delivery or for removing foreign objects.” she said.

The robot could be used in modern medicine, according to doctor Chengfeng Pan.  “Giving robots the ability to switch between liquid and solid states endows them with more functionality. Now, we’re pushing this material system in more practical ways to solve some very specific medical and engineering problems”

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Perhaps Earth’s Inner Core Began Rotating in a Different Direction




A behemoth may have started to move against us from far below our feet.

Going Clockwise?

A hot iron ball the size of Pluto that makes up Earth’s inner core has ceased rotating in the same direction as the rest of the globe and may even be doing so in the opposite direction, according to research published on Monday.

This “planet within the globe” lies around 5,000 km (3,100 miles) below the surface of the planet we live on and can spin freely because it floats in the liquid metal outer core.

The precise mechanism by which the inner core spins has been a subject of controversy among scientists, and the most recent research is anticipated to be contentious.

The minor changes in seismic waves that are produced by earthquakes or occasionally nuclear explosions as they pass through the center of the Earth are what allow us to learn what little there is about the inner core.

In a recent study, published in the journal Nature Geoscience, seismic waves from recurrent earthquakes over the previous 60 years were analyzed in an effort to follow the inner core’s motions.

The inner core’s rotation “came to nearly a standstill in 2009 and then turned in the other direction,” according to research authors Xiaodong Song and Yi Yang of China’s Peking University.

According to them, the inner core swings back and forth in relation to the Earth’s surface like a pendulum.

“One cycle of the swing is nearly seven decades”, indicating it switches direction roughly every 35 years, they noted.

They claimed that it had previously reversed course in the early 1970s and anticipated the next turn would occur in the middle of the 2040s.

The researchers stated this rotation closely lines up with fluctuations in what is termed the “length of day” — minor differences in the exact time it takes Earth to circle on its axis.

Meet me halfway

There isn’t much evidence to suggest that what happens inside the inner core affects us surface dwellers very much right now.

But the scientists asserted that they thought all of Earth’s layers, from its inner core to its surface, had physical connections.

We hope that our work may inspire some scientists to develop and test models that see the entire Earth as an interconnected dynamic system, the authors said.

Experts who were not involved in the study voiced skepticism about its conclusions, citing a number of other ideas and cautioning that there are still many unanswered questions regarding the Earth’s center.

Seismologist John Vidale of the University of Southern California commented, “This is a really meticulous research by outstanding scientists putting in a lot of data.”

But, he continued, “(none) of the models, in my judgment, explain all the data particularly well.

According to studies released by Vidale last year, the inner core oscillates far more fast, changing its orientation roughly every six years. Seismic waves from two nuclear explosions in the late 1960s and early 1970s served as the basis for his research.

According to Monday’s findings, the inner core last shifted direction around that time, which Vidale described as “kind of a coincidence.”

Hot Debate

Another idea, which, according to Vidale, has some solid evidence, holds that the inner core only considerably migrated between 2001 and 2013 and then remained in place after that.

In contrast to the 70 years that the most recent study suggested, geophysicist Hrvoje Tkalcic of the Australian National University has released research that suggests the inner core cycle occurs every 20 to 30 years.

Because they explain the observed data but are not necessary for understanding the data, Tkalcic said that all of these mathematical models are most likely erroneous.

The geophysical community will be split by this discovery, and the subject will continue to be debatable.

Seismologists, in his words, “examine the inside organs of patients’ bodies with subpar or restricted technology,” just like doctors do.

He noted that since we don’t have a CT scan, “our vision of the inside Earth is still fuzzy,” and that there would be more surprises in store.

That could cover more information on the hypothesis that the inner core may have yet another iron ball inside of it, similar to a Russian doll.

Vidale declared, “Something’s occurring, and I think we’re going to figure it out.”

But it may take ten years.

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